Teacher Achievers

All the Teachers are talented they are growing their knowledge.

Mrs Gayatri Mishra(PRT) rewarded on the eve of birth aniverssary of Sir C.V.Raman

 

 

1-   Mrs Puspa shrivastva(TGT Science)

2- Mrs Gayatri Mishra(PRT)

Creative work done by our students and KV staff

 

LUNAR GENE BANK FOR ENDANGERED SPECIES. Swain, R. K.1, Behera, D.2, Sahoo, P.K.3, Swain, S.K.4 and Sasmal, A.5, 1Student, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Sambalpur, Orissa, India. Email: , 2 PGT(Biotechnology), Kendriya Vidyalaya, Sambalpur, Orissa, India. Email: , 3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agricultural Engi-neering, BCKV, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India. Email: 4Senior Scientist(Farm Machinery & Power), RRTTS(OUAT), Chiplima, Sambalpur, Orissa, India. Email: , 5Programme Coordinator, KVK, Sundargarh, Orissa, India. Email: .

 

 

Introduction: Before the dawn of the 22nd centu-ry, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. The gene pools of many human ethnic groups are also threat-ened. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cov-er only a handful of the many thousand species threat-ened.

 

Against such indispensable losses scientists are starting cryopreservation of germplasms by creation of gene banks. I propose to construct a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the perma-nently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humani-tarian intrusions [4].

 

Rationale: In the pursuit of conservation of biodi-versity, enormous money is spent all over the globe but they are unable to address the severity of the prob-lem. Under such alarming circumstances, we turned to cryopreservation as an option but over thousands of years economic depression, sabotage, conflicts, warfare or even a brief disruption to the precise cryopreserva-tion can hamper the storage of genetic samples.When we are considering conservation it is always preferable to go for a more secure and permanent solution. It was found out that the climatic and strategic location of the lunar polar craters are adequately hospitable, remote and free of maintenance and human observation as they provide naturally cryogenic temperature, reduced grav-ity and vacuum environment, non-reactive surface, safety from celestial intrusion and permanent shadow which doesn’t allow the temperature to fluctuate thus providing most suitable storage facilities for the germplasms. PSRs provide steady temperature of 40-60K and immunity to earthquakes due to low seismic activity. At these sites, burial in one meter or more of the regolith will provide protection against the solar wind, solar and galactic cosmic rays and micrometeor-ite impact. It provides the minimum necessary barrier from human intervention and at the same time enables easy retrieval for future usage. Genetic samples of en-dangered species can enable restoration even after its extinction. Preserved tissues can secure the genetic heritage of species, and may allow future cloning to

 

 

restore biodiversity. Furthermore, there would be no scientific extinction [4].

 

Biological Processes: For storage of a huge num-ber of genetic samples, we need to follow the basic protocols of construction of a cDNA library based gene bank.cDNA library represents the genes that were be-ing actively transcribed in that particular source under the physiological, developmental, or environmental conditions that existed when the mRNA was purified [2]. Total RNA can be extracted from plants by using LiCl method [5]. The message RNA can be isolated and purified double-strand cDNA can be synthesized using the cDNA Library Construction Kit in a PCR machine. Five microliters of PCR products can be la-beled with α32PdATP)fractionated by electrophoresis in 1.0% alkaline agarose gel to check the ds-cDNA quality along with the single stranded cDNA. One mi-croliter of the purified cDNA can be ligated into the predigested vector (1 μg) digested by EcoR I-Xho I following the protocol of overnight ligation at 16 ºC in a sense orientation. The lambda library can be pack-aged in a high-efficiency system and plated on the E. coli cell line .After amplification of the library titre can be calculated as per the manufacturer’s recommenda-tion and it came to 1 X 107cfu. The library can be stored in 7% DMSO at -80ºC until further screening of the gene of interest. The size of the insert fragments can be measured by PCR method using random selec-tion of 10-15 clones from the SOLR infected positive clones (growing in LB ampicillin agar plates) [5].Using 0.1 gram of genetic material from about 20 individuals per species can allow the future restoration of a spe-cies. A realistic payload of 2,000 kg can save one mil-lion species. The storage medium would contain liquid nitrogen [4].

 

Location: After a thorough search, it has been concluded that the gene bank containing container should be buried under the regolith of the PSR of the base of Shoemaker Crater located near the Lunar South Pole, centered at 88.1 S, 45E[1]. It provides diameter of 20-51km with an immense 100m2 of PSR [6].

 

The physical properties of the floor material can be modeled. This floor is known to be flat, providing sim-ple geometry for understanding impact dynamics and the Ejecta plume in case required. In addition, about half of the crater floor is invisible from earth but access from polar lunar orbiter is good because a spacecraft

 

43rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2012) 1084.pdf

 

 

 

would pass overhead every two hours[6]. Hence, it enables easy storage, surveillance and prolonged reten-tion of the proposed gene bank.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1.Radar DEM of south polar craters, maker crater indicated by arrow; white – permanent shadow (calculated), gray – no radar return; from [3]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2. Radar DEM of south polar Shoemaker crater indicated by arrow; from [3].

 

Conclusion: Cryoconservation can add an im-portant ethical component to the space programme and help raising public support. Conversely, the permanent safety of the genetic material can also make cryocon-servation itself more attractive and fundable. Many nations may wish to participate to secure the genetic heritage of their unique biota and ethnic groups[4]. It is highly advisable that developed countries associate with biologically rich countries and biotechnologists all

 

 

 

over the world to collect the genetic samples as many as possible which they can include in their future lunar missions to secure the future of the living world. Until habitat losses are controlled, cryoconservation may provide the best chance to secure and eventually revive many endangered species. For this purpose, space-based depositories can provide precise conservation ,the most cost-effective and secure means for perma-nent storage of irreplaceable genetic materials with a single one time expenditure for ages instead of the prevalent ineffective conservation programs.

 

References:

 

[1] Allen, C. C., NASA Johnson Space Center, Mail Code KT, Houston, TX 77058 . Shoemaker crater – going where we can “see” [2] Anonymous, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_(biology) [3] Margot J. L. et al. (1999) Science, 284, 1658-1660 [4] Mautner, M.N. (1996) Space-based Genetic Cryoconservation of Endangered Species. Journal of The British Interplane-tary Society. , Vol. 49, pp 319-320 [5] Sambrook J, Fritschi EF and Maniatis T (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratorymanual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York [6] Shevchenko, V.V. and E.A.Kozlova, Sternberg State Astronomical Institute, Moscow University, 13 Universitetsky pr., 119992 Moscow, Russia; e-mail: Permanently shadowed areas at the lunar poles